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Bell pepper Capsicum Annuum Solanaceae

http://en.wikipedia.org

Scoville heat units

 

15,000,000–16,000,000

Pure capsaicin

8,600,000–9,100,000

 

5,000,000–5,300,000

 

855,000–1,463,700

 

350,000–580,000

 

100,000–350,000

 

50,000–100,000

 

30,000–50,000

 

10,000–23,000

 

2,500–8,000

 

500–2,500

 

100–500

 

0


Bell pepper

Cultivar group of large rectangular fruit without noticeable heat. The ripe fruit can be red, yellow, green, orange, white, purple, blue, or brown depending on the specific cultivar.

Bell pepper, also known as sweet pepper or capsicum, is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum (chili pepper). Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors, including red, yellow, orange and green. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America and northern South America. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European, African and Asian countries. Today, Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.
Nomenclature

The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. At that time peppercorns, the fruit of Piper nigrum, an unrelated plant originating from India, were a highly prized condiment; the name "pepper" was at that time applied in Europe to all known spices with a hot and pungent taste and so naturally extended to the newly discovered Capsicum genus. The most commonly used alternative name of the plant family, "chili", is of Central American origin. Bell peppers are botanically fruits, but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables.

While the bell pepper is a member of the Capsicum genus, it is the only Capsicum apart from Capsicum rhomboideum that does not produce capsaicin, a lipophilic chemical that can cause a strong burning sensation when it comes in contact with mucous membranes. The lack of capsaicin in bell peppers is due to a recessive form of a gene that eliminates capsaicin and, consequently, the "hot" taste usually associated with the rest of the Capsicum genus.

The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits, regardless of their color. In British English, the fruit is simply referred to as a "pepper", or additionally by colour (as in the term "green pepper", for example), whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries, such as Australia, India, Malaysia and New Zealand, they are called "capsicum". Across Europe, the term "paprika", which has its roots in the word for pepper, is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e.g., "groene paprika", "gele paprika", in Dutch, which are green and yellow, respectively). Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the fruits in the Capsicum genus.[3] In France, it is called "poivron", with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"), or "piment". In Korea, the word 피망 ("piman" from the French) refers to green bell peppers, whereas 파프리카 ("papurika" from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors.
Varieties

The color can be green, red, yellow, orange and more rarely, white, rainbow (between stages of ripening) and purple, depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red, yellow or orange peppers. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and post-harvest storage treatment; the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine, while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet.
Bell pepper Heat None (SR:0)
Pepper, sweet, green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 84 kJ (20 kcal)
Carbohydrates 4.64 g
- Sugars 2.40 g
- Dietary fiber 1.7 g
Fat 0.17 g
Protein 0.86 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.057 mg (4%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.028 mg (2%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.480 mg (3%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.099 mg (2%)
Vitamin B6 0.224 mg (17%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 10 μg (3%)
Vitamin C 80.4 mg (134%)
Calcium 10 mg (1%)
Iron 0.34 mg (3%)
Magnesium 10 mg (3%)
Phosphorus 20 mg (3%)
Potassium 175 mg (4%)
Zinc 0.13 mg (1%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Nutritional value

 

 

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