Capsicum baccatum is a species of chili pepper that includes the
following cultivar and varieties:
Aji amarillo, or amarillo chili
Origins and distribution
The C. baccatum species, particularly the Ají amarillo chili (Aji
is the caribean word for chili and/or peppers that the Spaniards
colonizers extended to most of Central and South America), is
typically associated with Peruvian cuisine, and is considered part
of its condiment trinity together with red onion and garlic. Aji
amarillo literally means yellow chili, however the yellow color
appears when cooked, the mature pods are bright orange.
Today the Ají amarillo is mainly seen in South American markets
and in Latin American food stores around the world where Peruvian
and Bolivian expatriates are numerous. The wild baccatum species (C.
baccatum var. baccatum) is most common in Bolivia with outlier
populations in Peru (rare) and Paraguay, northern Argentina, and
Pepper varieties in the C. baccatum species have white or cream
colored flowers, and typically have a green or gold corolla. The
flowers are either insect or self-fertilized. The fruit pods of the
baccatum species have been cultivated into a wide variety of shapes
and sizes, unlike other capsicum species which tend to have a
characteristic shape. The pods typically hang down, unlike a
Capsicum frutescens plant, and can have a citrus or fruity flavor.
Aji amarillo is one of the main ingredients of the Peruvian and
Bolivian cuisine condiment and is a main ingredient in many of their
dishes and sauces. In Peru the chilis are mostly used fresh, in
Bolivia dried and ground. Common dishes with aji amarillo are the
Peruvian stew "Aji de Gallina" ("Chili with Hen"), the "Huancaina
sauce", and the Bolivian "Fricase Paceno" among others.
 Use by Moche
Ají Amarillo Pepper. Moche Culture. Larco Museum Collection.
The Moche culture often represented fruits and vegetables in
their art, including Ají amarillo peppers.