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Cayenne pepper Capsicum Annuum Solanaceae

http://en.wikipedia.org

Scoville heat units

 

15,000,000–16,000,000

Pure capsaicin

8,600,000–9,100,000

 

5,000,000–5,300,000

 

855,000–1,463,700

 

350,000–580,000

 

100,000–350,000

 

50,000–100,000

 

30,000–50,000

cayenne pepper 30,000 to 50,000 

10,000–23,000

 

2,500–8,000

 

500–2,500

 

100–500

 

0


 

Long, thin fruit that was transported by the Portuguese to China and India, where it is used widely. Often dried and ground into powder.

Cayenne pepper

The cayenne pepper—also known as the Guinea spice, cow-horn pepper, aleva, bird pepper, or, especially in its powdered form, red pepper—is a hot, red chili pepper used to flavor dishes and for medicinal purposes. Named for the city of Cayenne in French Guiana, it is a cultivar of Capsicum annuum related to bell peppers, jalapeños, and others. The Capsicum genus is in the nightshade family (Solanaceae).

The fruits are generally dried and ground, or pulped and baked into cakes, which are then ground and sifted to make the powdered spice of the same name.

Cayenne is used in cooking spicy dishes, as a powder or in its whole form (such as in Sichuan cuisine), or in a thin, vinegar-based sauce. It is generally rated at 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville units. It is also used as an herbal supplement, and was mentioned by Nicholas Culpeper in his 17th century book Complete Herbal.
Contents
Cultivation

Most cultivated varieties of cayenne, Capsicum annuum, can be grown in a variety of locations and need approximately 100 days to mature. Peppers prefer warm, moist, nutrient-rich soil in a warm climate. The plants grow to about 2–4 feet (0.6–1 metre) of height and should be spaced 3 ft (1 m) apart.[3]

Chilis are mostly perennial in sub-tropical and tropical regions; however, they are usually grown as annuals in temperate climates. They can be overwintered if protected from frost, and require some pruning.[4]
Nutrition

Cayenne pepper is high in vitamin A. It also contains vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin C, riboflavin, potassium and manganese. It is sold in capsules with the claimed health benefit of increased blood circulation.[2]
In cuisine
Cayenne peppers used during the marination of chicken

Cayenne is a popular spice in a variety of cuisines. It is employed variously in its fresh form, dried and powdered, and as dried flakes. It is also a key ingredient in a variety of hot sauces, particularly those employing vinegar as a preservative.[6] Cayenne pepper is often spread on sandwiches or similar items to add a spicy flavor. Buffalo-wing sauce contains Cayenne pepper.
 In beverages

Recently, beverage products are emerging with cayenne-pepper extract, capsaicin, as an active ingredient.

 

 

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