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Chiltepin pepper Capsicum Annuum Solanaceae


Scoville heat units



Pure capsaicin












Chiltepin 50.000-100.000













Small, hot fruit that is often eaten by birds. The plant is thought to be the oldest member of the Capsicum genus. Evidence indicates that this has been consumed by humans as far back as 7,500 B.C.

Chiltepin pepper

Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum is a variety of Capsicum annuum that is native to southern North America and northern South America. Common names include chiltepin, chiltepe, and chile tepin. This variety is the most likely progenitor of the domesticated C. annuum var. annuum.

Chiltepin is a shrub that usually grows to a height of around 1 m (3.3 ft), but sometimes reaches 3 m (9.8 ft).
Cluster of 18 intertwined plants

The tiny chile peppers of C. a. var. glabriusculum are red to orange-red, usually slightly ellipsoidal, and about 0.8 cm (0.31 in) in diameter.[4] Some strains of tepin peppers however are perfectly round (not the least bit oval) while fresh. If a tepin pepper is dried, it appears quite round even if it is the slightly ellipsoidal strain. Tepin is derived from a Nahuatl word meaning "flea". Tepin peppers, "turkey" or "bird’s eye" or simply "bird" peppers (due to their consumption and spread by wild birds), are extremely hot, measuring between 50,000 and 100,000 Scoville Units.

Some chile enthusiasts argue that the Tepin can potentially be hotter than the habanero or Red Savina, supported with the numbers reported from Craig Dremann's Pepper Hotness Test scores [5] However, since this pepper is harvested from wild stands in the Mexican desert, the heat level of the fruit can vary greatly from year to year, depending on the amount of natural rainfall that occurs during the time that the fruits are forming. During drought years, fruits heat levels can be weak, and during normal rainfall years, the highest heat levels are produced.

In Mexico, the heat of the Chiltepin is called arrebatado ("rapid" or "violent"), because, while the heat is intense, it is not very enduring. This stands in contrast to the Chili Piquin, which is the same size as the Chiltepin but is oval-shaped, and delivers a decidedly different experience.

The different drying methods used for the Tepin and Pequin, can help tell these pepper apart. Tepins are always sun-dried, whereas the Pequins are commonly dried over wood smoke, and the smell of the smoke in the Pequins can help separate the two varieties. Pequins are not as hot as Chiltepins (only about 30,000-50,000 Scoville Units),[6] but they have a much slower and longer-lasting effect. In Thailand, where the Pequin was introduced and has become one of the national pepper varieties, is called "Prin-ke-nu", which translates to mean Rat-turd pepper.
Habitat and range

C. a. var. glabriusculum can be found in Texas, Arizona, and Florida in the Southern United States, the Bahamas, the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, and Colombia. It prefers well-drained soils, such as silty or sandy loams, and 800–2,000 mm (31–79 in) of annual precipitation in Puerto Rico. It may be found in areas with a broken forest canopy or disturbed areas that lack tree cover if moisture and soil are favorable. Elsewhere, such as in Arizona, it may require the partial shading of a nurse plant.

Chiltepin was named "the official native pepper of Texas" in 1997, two years after the Jalapeρo became the official pepper of Texas.

In 1999, Native Seeds/SEARCH and the United States Forest Service established the 2,500-acre (1,000 ha) Wild Chile Botanical Area in the Coronado National Forest. Located in the Rock Corral Canyon near Tumacacori, Arizona, the preserve protects a large C. a. var. glabriusculum population for study[10] and as a genetic reserve.