Guntur Sannam or Capsicum Annuum var. Longhum, is one of the most
famous types of chillies and has a huge demand throughout the world.
It widely grows in Guntur, Warangal, and Khammam districts of Andhra
Pradesh in India.
Guntur Sannam chilli belongs to the variety Capsicum annum. It is
well known as a commercial crop used as a condiment, culinary
supplement or as a vegetable. Among the spices consumed per head in
India, dried chillies contribute a major share.
Chilli was known to Indians about 400 years ago. Globally, India
stands first in the production of chilli. The province of Andhra
Pradesh leads in its production, providing 46% of all chilli
produced in India. The very fact that ethymologically, the word
Guntur Sannam chilli has its origin in Telugu confirms its Andhra
Pradesh origin. The word Sannam stands for thin or long in Telugu.
Foreseeing the potential for chilli production in this region,
the government of Andhra Pradesh started a regional research station
at LAM near Guntur, India three decades ago which works on research
aspects of chilli as well. Guntur has been associated with chillies
for decades, and hence the prefix Guntur for the name of this chilli.
At present, chilli has become one of the most important cash
crops and thousands of people directly depend on the cultivation of
this spice for their livelihood.
The word Sannam in Telugu means thin or long. The very name of
the Guntur Sannam Chilli indicates two facts: the description of the
fruit, and more importantly, the strong antecedents arising from
Guntur Sannam chilli has got specific characteristics which have
enabled it to earn international and national acclaim. Sannam chilli
is generally known to trade as a S4 type chilli and is mainly used
for its pungency and for the extraction and derivation of capsaicin.
The following are the chief attributes/characteristics of Guntur
The Guntur Sannam chilli belongs to Capsicum Annuum var longhum
variety with long fruits (5 to 15 cms. In length) and diameter range
from 0.5 to 1.5 cms.
The chilli has thick skin.
The skin of crushed chili is thick, red and hot.
The chilli is hot and pungent with average pungency of 35,000 to
The chilli is red with ASTA colour value of about 32.11.
The content of Capsaicin is about 0.226%.
This chilli is rich in vitamin C (185 mg/100g) and protein
Guntur Sannam has its peak harvesting season from December to
May. The annual production of this type is approximately 280,000
tonnes. Guntur Sannam chilli has specific requirements in its means
of production for attaining an ideal/optimum level of production.
The crops are highly disease prone and need special care and
attention to ensure a healthy pest free yield.