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Piper nigrum Black pepper Piperaceae
Highly regarded as a condiment, this is probably the most widely used spice in the world today.
It is a strong, woody climber to 20 ft (6 m) or more high with prominently veined, glossy oval leaves.
The inconspicuous flowers, borne in long slender spikes in summer, are followed by red globular fruit.
Plants begin bearing in 2 to 5 years and under good conditions may produce for up to 40 years.
Cultivation: All species need a warm climate with moist, humus-rich soil to grow well.
They will grow in sun or shade and in the right conditions are often vigorous plants.
Propagate from seed or cuttings or by division or layering depending on the plant type.
Country of Origin: Indonesia
Extraction Method: Steam distilled
Parts Used: The unripe, sun-dried peppercorns (fruit) are used for the extraction of the oil, using steam distillation which produces a yield of nearly 2%.
Warming, mental stimulant, physical energizer
The essential oil is composed of various chemical constituents and includes the following; a-thujone, a-pinene, camphene, sabinene, b-pinene, a-phellandrene, myrcene, limonene, caryophyllene, b-farnesene, b-bisabolene, linalool and terpinen-4-ol.