Common Names: Jerusalem thorn, Mexican palo verde
Family: Fabaceae/Leguminosae (bean Family)
tree Shrub Fast Growing Drought Tolerant Has Unusual or Interesting
Jerusalem thorn is a small tree growing to 25 ft (7.6 m) tall with a
short trunk and a graceful, spreading, sometimes weeping, crown to
20 ft (6.1 m) wide. The slender branches and twigs have green bark,
and are armed with stout spines up to 1 in (2.5 cm) long. Jerusalem
thorn has peculiar straplike, twice compound leaves that look like
long, feathery streamers. Each leaf is modified into 2 or 4 strips
about 10-16 in (25.4-40.6 cm) long and less than an 1 in (2.5 cm)
wide. Each strip has 22-30 pairs of tiny opposing leaflets less than
0.33 in (0.8 cm) long. The leaves appear shortly after rain, they
fold up at night, and usually within a few days the tiny leaflets
drop off, leaving the persistent rachises (midribs) to flutter like
streamers in the wind. Eventually these fall off too, and accumulate
like pine needles beneath the tree. A spectacular display of
clustered pealike flowers in spring makes the whole tree look like a
giant yellow bouquet. The brown pods are about 3-4 in (7.6-10.2 cm)
long and constricted between the seeds.
There are five species in the genus Parkinsonia: four in North and
South America and one in South Africa. Jerusalem thorn is native to
desert grasslands and canyons in Mexico and the SW US where it often
grows in association with mesquite (Prosopis spp.). It is grown as
an ornamental in tropical and subtropical climates and has escaped
cultivation and established in Florida, California, the West Indies,
and in Australia where it is regarded as one of the most troublesome
invasive weeds in the Northern Territories. Jerusalem thorn has been
used to revegetate desertified regions in Africa and Pakistan.
Jerusalem thorn does well on sandy or gravelly soils, and is
tolerant of alkaline and chalky soils. It grows fast and has few
Light: Full sun.
Moisture: Drought tolerant. Survives in regions that receive less
than 12 in (30.5 in) of annual rainfall.
Hardiness: USDA Zones 8 - 11. Thrives in heat. Is damaged at
temperatures below 18ºF (-7.8ºC).
Propagation: By seed. Jerusalem thorn produces two kinds of seeds
within the same pod. About 25% of the light brown seeds germinate
readily. The rest of the light brown seeds and all of the dark brown
seeds have hard seed coats which must be scarified before they will
The Jerusalem thorn's wispy foliage shimmers in a green haze when
backlit by sunlight.
Jerusalem thorn is well suited to informal landscapes. Use it in a
cactus and succulent garden and let its lacy foliage and slender
twigs contrast with the solid blocky shapes of the succulents.
Unaffected by heat, Jerusalem thorn makes a fine street or patio
tree and provides a delicate, filtered shade.
Jerusalem thorn is highly adapted to life in the desert. It has
largely done away with leaves that lose water through evaporation
and transpiration, producing its food instead within the
photosynthetic tissue of the bark.
Native Americans harvested the seeds of Jerusalem thorn which
they sun dried for storage and parched over dry heat before eating.