Genipa americana is a species of Genipa, native to northern South
America (south to Peru), the Caribbean and southern Mexico, growing
in rainforests. It is commonly called Genipapo or Huito; the
alternate name Jagua may refer to other species of Genipa as well.
To the Inca, it was known as hawa or wituq. In the British islands
of the West Indies, it was called the marmalade box.
It is a small tree growing to 15 m tall. The leaves are opposite,
lanceolate to oblong, 20–35 cm long and 10–19 cm broad, glossy dark
green, with an entire margin. The flowers are white, yellow or red,
with a five-lobed corolla 5–6 cm diameter. The fruit is a
thick-skinned edible berry 5–8 cm diameter.
A number of varieties and forms have been described:
Genipa americana var. americana
Genipa americana var. caruto K.Schum.
Genipa americana var. riobranquensis Kuhlm.
Genipa americana f. grandifolia Chodat & Hassl.
Genipa americana f. jorgensenii Steyerm.
Genipa americana f. parvifolia Chodat & Hassl.
The leaves are a food source for the caterpillars of the Fadus
Sphinx Moth (Aellopos fadus).
Genipa americana is cultivated for its edible fruit, which are
made into drinks, jelly, sherbet and used in ice cream. It is also
said to be useful for treatment of candiru attacks. South American
Indians bathe their legs in the clear liquid obtained from the
fruit. The liquid has an astringent effect. When the liquid
oxidizes, it stains the skin black. These stains are permanent, but
only color the top few layers of skin, and thus disappear after
about a fortnight, when the skin is naturally shed. As South
Americans Indians went into battle, they used to paint themselves
with Genipa juice and annatto.
The juice of the immature fruit is clear, but induces a chemical
reaction on the human skin resulting in a tattoo-like dark blue.
Used by rainforest natives as body-painting color. The ripened fruit
of Huito is often eaten raw or made into jam. The fruit is brewed
into a tea and taken as a remedy for bronchitis. Huito prefers
alluvial soils, and grows very quickly (producing in 3 years), even
in heavily flooded fields. This tree can be planted but more often
than not it is dispersed by animals or water. It also serves as a
very good climbing tree to reach other trees. In Puerto Rico, the
fruit is placed in a glass container, refrigerated and used as a
tonic. Folklore states that it contains natural glass