Oroxylum indicum is a species of flowering plant belonging to the
English : Broken bones plant, Indian calosanthes, Indian Trumpet,
Indian trumpet flower, midnight horror, oroxylum, tree of
Chinese : 木蝴蝶 (hanyu pinyin : mù húdié, butterfly tree)
Bengali : সোনা sona
Hindi : भूत वृक्ष bhut-vriksha, दीर्घवृन्त dirghavrinta, कुटन्नट
kutannat, मण्डूक manduk (the flower), पत्रोर्ण patrorna, पूतिवृक्ष
putivriksha, शल्लक shallaka, शूरण shuran, सोन or शोण son, वटुक vatuk
Kannada : ತಟ್ಟುನ tattuna
Konkani : davamadak
Nepalese : टटेलों tatelo
Malayalam : പലകപയ്യാനി palaqapayyani, വാശ്പ്പാതിരി vashrppathiri,
Marathi : टायिटू tayitu, टेटु tetu
Sanskrit : अरलु aralu, श्योनक shyonaka
Singhala (Sri Lanka) : Totila, Thotila
Tamil : சொரிகொன்றை cori-konnai, பாலையுடைச்சி palai-y-utaicci,
பூதபுஷ்பம் puta-puspam (the flower)
Telugu : మండూకపర్ణము manduka-parnamu, పంపెన pampena, శూకనాసము
Thai: เพกา (Pheka)
other common name : kampong.
It is a tree which can reach a height of 12 m (40 ft). The large
leaf stalks wither and fall off the tree and collect near the base
of the trunk, appearing to look like a pile of broken limb bones.
The tree is a night-bloomer and flowers are adapted to natural
pollination by bats. They form enormous seed pods that hang down
from bare branches. Those long fruits curve downward and resemble
the wings of a large bird or dangling sickles or swords in the
The seeds are round with papery wings.
Oroxylum indicum is native to the Indian subcontinent, in the
Himalayan foothills with a part extending to Bhutan and southern
China, in Indo-China and the Malesia ecozone.
It is visible in the forest biome of Manas National Park in Assam,
India. It is also reported from Sri Lanka (Ceylon).
Oroxylum indicum lives in relationship with the actinomycete
Pseudonocardia oroxyli present in the soil surrounding the roots.
The tree is often grown as an ornamental for its strange
appearance. Materials used include the wood, tannins and dyestuffs.
It is also a plant with edible leaves and stems.
In traditional medicines
The Oroxylum indicum seed is used in the traditional Indian
ayurvedic medicine. The root bark is also used, administered as
astringent, bitter tonic, stomachic and anodyne. It is included in
famous tonic formulations, such as Chyawanprash.
The bark of O. indicum (Chinese : 木蝴蝶树皮, hanyu pinyin : mù húdié
shùpí) or Cortex Oroxyli is a traditional Chinese medicine
The bark of O. indicum (Singhala / Sri Lanka: Totila, Totilla) is
one of main ingredients in Sri Lankan indigenous medicine (in
decoctions) as a remedy for pains in joints or rheumatism.
The leaf contains chrysin and baicalein. Tetuin, the 6-glucoside
of baicalein, is reported in the seeds. Other flavonoids, known for
their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy effects, are also present,
though it may need to be used in high doses to get a response.
Oroxindin has also been isolated from Oroxylum indicum whereas
oroxylin A is reported in the root bark