A decidious shrub. . The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male
and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay)
soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires
moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime
exposure. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Anodyne; Antiphlogistic; Depurative; Diuretic; Purgative; Skin.
The leaves and the root are used in the treatment of pain and
numbness, bone diseases and rheumatic problems.
The fruit is depurative and purgative. A decoction of the fruit is
used to treat injuries, skin diseases and swellings.
A decoction of the whole plant is anodyne, depurative and diuretic.